There may be many reasons resulting in network latency. The possible contributors to it include the following factors:
- The time it takes for a packet to physically travel from its source to a destination.
- Error from router or switch since each gateway needs to spend time checking and changing the packet headers, therefore it takes much time for an Ethernet packet to traverse an Ethernet switch.
- Anti-virus and similar security process, which needs time to finish message recombination and dismantling before sending.
- Storage delays when packets suffer from storage or disk access delays at intermediate devices like switches and bridges.
- Software bugs from the user’s side.
- The problem is from the transmission medium itself, which takes some time to transmit one packet from a source to a destination from fiber optics to coaxial cables.
- Delays occur even when packets travel from one node to another at the speed of light.