The definition of 100Mbps
Ethernet technology does employ optical fiber when required to reach greater distances. Signals over fiber optic cable can reach up to 74 miles; signals over copper in the processed form can only reach a distance of 328ft.
The definition of 1G
1G refers to Gigabit Ethernet transmissions. They can reach rates of up to 1000 Mbit/s. This application is widespread in the telecom industry which relies heavily on cables reaching much longer distances. These cables are also subject to harsher extremes.
The definition of 10G
10G, also known as 10Gbe or 10GigE, refers to the Gigabit Ethernet next generation that’s on track to achieve transmission rates of 10 gigabits per second. These speeds support robust networks that need larger bandwidth rates such as business class deployments.
The definition of Serial RS422/485
Serial RS422/485 are serial communication standards frequently used in the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT). RS-422, a single ended multi-drop standard, supports one transmitter and up to 10 receivers at distances of 40 feet at 10 Mbits/sec, 400 feet at 1 Mbit/sec, and 4,000 feet at 100kbps.
RS-485, is the multi-drop version, and can support 32 transmitters and receivers also at distances of 40 feet at 10 Mbits/sec, 400 feet at 1 Mbit/sec, and 4,000 feet at 100kbps.
SPF is simply small form factor pluggable and refers to a smaller device technology.