There are copper to fiber media converters and fiber to fiber media converters, which can be divided further.
Copper to Fiber Media Converter
Copper to fiber media converters enable connections of copper-based Ethernet devices over extended distances via a fiber optic link, which protects data from noise and interference and future-proofs a network with additional bandwidth capacity. Copper to fiber media converter includes Ethernet ones providing connectivity for Ethernet, Fast Ethernet, Gigabit and 10 Gigabit Ethernet devices; TDM (Time Division Multiplexing) ones enabling to extend traditional TDM telecom protocols copper connections; serial-to-fiber ones providing fiber extension for serial protocol copper connections. Copper to fiber media converters are well fitted for point-to-point connections.
Fiber to Fiber Media Converter
Fiber to fiber media converters can provide connectivity between multimode and single mode fiber, dual fiber and single fiber, and support wavelength conversion. Multimode to single mode converters are typically required when lower cost legacy equipment uses MM ports but connectivity is required to SM equipment. Multimode media converter can achieve a transmission distance of 2 km, often deployed in short-distance transmission to extend LANs over fiber cable. While single mode media converter can reach a relatively longer distance from 2 km to 100 km, which is suitable for linking enterprise networks or campus backbones with bandwidth-hungry applications. In the following case, multimode and single mode fiber media converters are deployed to bridge the two buildings and the central data center, spanning 2 km over multimode fiber and 10 km over single mode fiber.